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Static Code Analysis

Definition: Static analysis refers to the examination of an application's code without executing it, aiming to detect and resolve potential security vulnerabilities, coding errors, and compliance issues.

Static code analysis is a proactive measure used to identify and mitigate potential vulnerabilities within the source code early in the development lifecycle. This type of analysis is performed using automated tools, collectively known as static application security testing (SAST) tools, which scan the entirety of the codebase for patterns associated with known security issues. Such tools provide an efficient means of scrutinising complex code that could contain flaws like injection vulnerabilities, insecure handling of user input, cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities, and others.

The advantage of static code analysis lies in its ability to quickly analyse large codebases and identify issues without requiring the code to be running. As part of a secure coding initiative, static analysis helps to reduce the number of security flaws that make it into the released version of an application, leading to higher quality and more secure software. However, it is not infallible and usually is used in conjunction with dynamic analysis to provide a more comprehensive security assessment.

Static analysis is especially valuable as it can be integrated seamlessly into the software development process, often being incorporated into continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) workflows to identify issues at each stage of code commits, pull requests, or builds.

Key Characteristics:

  • Involves the review of source code without execution
  • Identifies vulnerabilities and compliance issues
  • Often automated with SAST tools
  • Complements dynamic analysis for thorough security testing


  • Real-World Example: Before releasing a new banking application, the development team uses a static code analysis tool to detect security flaws, such as improper error handling and SQL injection vulnerabilities, which are then remediated.
  • Hypothetical Scenario: A software company integrates a static analysis tool into their CI/CD pipeline. Each time a developer commits new code, the tool automatically scans for vulnerabilities and generates a report which must be addressed before proceeding.

Related Terms:

  • SAST (Static Application Security Testing): Tools and methodologies used to carry out static analysis, identifying weaknesses and vulnerabilities in source code during the development stages.
  • Code Review: A systematic manual examination of source code by humans, which complements automated static analysis, especially for complex security checks and business logic validation.
  • Dynamic Analysis: The testing and evaluation of a program based on its execution, a counterpart to static analysis that identifies problems during the program’s runtime.
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): A type of application security vulnerability detected by static analysis, enabling attackers to inject client-side scripts into web pages.

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